Analyzers

This comprehensive INVOLVE® multimedia training program was produced in association with the Instrument Society of America USA. This five individual lessons program trains participants in Me principles of process analysis and Me operation and applications associated with spectroscopic, electrochemical, and chromatographic analyzers.

Audience: This program is excellent for training instrument technicians as well as for the multi-craft training needs of process and manufacturing.

Principles of Process Analysis


Prerequisites: This lesson is designed for participants with an understanding of industrial process control. Participants should also have a basic understanding of chemistry and physics.

Description: This lesson introduces participants to the principles of process analysis. The advantages of process analysis for industry are discussed and the scientific principles of the various process analysis methods, such as spectrometry, chromatography, electrochemical and physical property analysis are described.

Objectives:

  • Describe the concept of process analysis
  • Distinguish between process and laboratory analysis
  • Describe how process analysis aids in conforming to environmental and regulatory policy as well as safety and loss prevention standards
  • Understand safe and effective process analyzer use
  • Describe the principles of thermal conductivity analysis, combustible gas detection, electrical conductance analysis, electrochemical analysis, zirconium
  • Oxide oxygen detection, ph analysis, opacity analysis, and spectrometric analysis
  • Explain the beer-lambert law
  • Identify the means of measuring density in fluids
  • Identify the methods to measure moisture in fluids
  • Describe how moisture is measured in gases and liquids using the electrolytic method, the piezoelectric method, and the aluminum gas method
  • Describe the principles of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry
  • Explain the methods
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Spectroscopic Analyzers


Prerequisites: This lesson is designed for participants familiar with industrial process control and process analysis. Participants should also have a basic understanding of chemistry and physics.

Description: This lesson introduces participants to spectroscopic analyzers and describes their principles of operation, components, and measurements. Various analyzer configurations are explained and the operation of mass spectrometers is described.

Objectives:

  • Define the term electromagnetic spectrum
  • Identify UV, visible, and infrared regions on electromagnetic spectrum diagrams
  • Describe common types of molecular excitation
  • Identify and describe typical spectroscopic analyzer components and explain their functions
  • Explain the function of optical filters in limiting radiation to the wavelength of interest
  • Explain the necessity of various analyzer configurations
  • Describe the operation of split beam, single beam, and dual beam analyzers
  • Describe the configuration and operation of a nondispersive analyzer
  • Describe the configuration of multicomponent analyzers
  • Explain the operation of a mass spectrometer
  • Describe the functions of a mass spectrometer’s control unit
  • Discuss spectroscopic analyzer sampling considerations
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Gas Chromatographs


Prerequisites: This lesson is designed for participants with an understanding of industrial process control, process analysis, and spectroscopic analysis. Participants should also have a basic understanding of chemistry and physics.

Description: This lesson introduces participants to gas chromatography and describes gas chromatograph principles of operation,components, and Applications appropriate for gas chromatographs are identified and discussed.

Objectives:

  • Identify gas chromatograph system components
  • Identify the two most common types of columns: liquid on solid and active solid columns
  • Identify the components of a column switching system
  • Explain column efficiency- define resolution and peak interface
  • Explain the effects of oven temperature, sample size, and carrier gas flow on chromatograms
  • Explain the function of a programmer
  • Define each component of a standard chromatogram
  • Explain methods of determining column switching times for back-flushing
  • Describe how to program and calibrate a gas chromatograph
  • Be able to identify appropriate applications for using a gas chro- matograph, such as butadine analysis and trace component analysis
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Air and Water Analysis


Prerequisites: This lesson is designed for participants with a basic understanding of industrial process emissions and effluents and the regulations governing them. Participants should also have a basic knowledge of the principles of process analysis, spectroscopic analysis, and gas chromatographs.

Description: This lesson trains participants to apply the concepts and terminology associated with the principles of process analysis to air and water analysis. The agencies and regulations governing air and water quality are described, and the ways in which various types of analyzers detect and measure the components in air and water are discussed.

Objectives:

  • Explain the role and importance of analyzers and detectors for air and water monitoring
  • Identify EPA and OSHA regulatory issues surrounding air and water monitoring
  • Identify and describe the fundamental operating principles of paramagnetic, zirconium oxide, and low temperature instruments
  • Identify air quality applications for spectroscopic instruments
  • Identify the operating principles of opacity monitors and infrared and ultraviolet stack analyzers
  • Identify air quality applications for gas chromatography
  • Identify water quality applications for electrochemical instruments
  • Identify the operating principles of pH analyzers, ion-specific electrode analyzers, conductivity analyzers, and dissolved oxygen analyzers
  • Identify water quality applications for spectroscopic instruments
  • Identify water quality applications for flame ionization detection
  • Identify the principles of operation for flame ionization detectors
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Process Sampling Systems


Prerequisites: This lesson is designed for participants with an understanding of industrial process control, process analysis, spectroscopic analysis, gas chromatographs, and air and waver analysis. Participants should also have a basic understanding of chemistry and physics.

Description: This lesson introduces participants to the tenets of sound simple handling system design for process analyzers and covers each of the major sections usually included? process interface, sample transport, sample conditioning, and sample disposal. Multistream switching and contamination prevention strategies are also covered.

Objectives:

  • Identify the reasons for using a sample handling system in process analysis
  • Identify the importance and characteristics of a well-designed sample handling system
  • Identify the reasons for using a sample handling system in process analysis
  • Describe the operating principles of sample handling systems
  • Recognize sample system components
  • Identify the materials of construction in different sample handling systems that enable components to withstand any corrosive effects of the sample
  • Identify the methods to ensure a safely maintained sample handling system
  • Identify the importance and function of the sample handling transport system
  • Identify the factors that determine lag time in a sample transport system
  • Explain the importance of sample conditioning
  • Describe and explain the different ways that samples can be conditioned
  • Explain the importance of proper filter maintenance
  • Explain how block-and-bleed and double, block sample switching systems operate
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